Managing is one of the most important human activities. From the time human beings began forming social organizations to accomplish aims and objectives they could not accomplish as individuals, managing has been essential to ensure the coordination of individual efforts.
As society continuously relied on group effort, and as many organized groups have become large, the task of managers has been increasing in importance and complexity. Henceforth, managerial theory has become crucial in the way managers manage complex organizations.
Modern Management Theories And Practices Management Essay
The central thesis of this paper is that although some managers in different parts of the world could have achieved managerial success without having basic theoretical knowledge in management, it has to be unequivocally emphasized that those managers who have mixed management theory in their day-to-day practice, have had better chances of managing their organizations more efficiently and effectively to achieve both individual and organizational objectives.
Therefore, managers of contemporary organizations ought to appreciate the important role they play in their respective organizations if they are to achieve set goals.
Secondly, there is need to promote excellence among all persons in organizations, especially among managers themselves. Management is the art, or science, of achieving goals through people. Since managers also supervise, management can be interpreted to mean literally "looking over" — i. More broadly, management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims Koontz and Weihrichp.
In its expanded form, this basic definition means several things. First, as managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.
Second, management applies to any kind of organization. Third, management applies to managers at all organizational levels. Fourth, the aim of all managers is the same — to create surplus. Finally, managing is concerned with productivity — this implies effectiveness and efficiency. Thus, management refers to the development of bureaucracy that derives its importance from the need for strategic planning, co-ordination, directing an controlling of large and complex decision-making process.
Essentially, therefore, management entails the acquisition of managerial competence, and effectiveness in the following key areas: problem solving, administration, human resource management, and organizational leadership. First and foremost, management is about solving problems that keep emerging all the time in the course of an organization struggling to achieve its goals and objectives. Problem solving should be accompanied by problem identification, analysis and the implementation of remedies to managerial problems.
Second, administration involves following laid down procedures although procedures or rules should not be seen as ends in themselves for the execution, control, communication, delegation and crisis management.
Third, human resource management should be based on strategic integration of human resource, assessment of workers, and exchange of ideas between shareholders and workers.
Finally, organizational leadership should be developed along lines of interpersonal relationship, teamwork, self-motivation to perform, emotional strength and maturity to handle situations, personal integrity, and general management skills.Task: Through completion of this assessment you will develop your case study skills through undertaking research and analysis on a targeted organisation.
If applicable, you may refer to this case study in your essay to support your arguments. Background : Tesco, one of the largest retailers in the United Kingdom was incorporated in with the launch of its first supermarket store in London Tesco plc, A. The company has more than stores in the UK with approximately colleagues working for them. The management of the company is making their best efforts to strengthen their foundation each day so that they can offer improved quality, wider product portfolio, better services and sharper prices to their consumers Tesco plc, B.
On average, the stores serve 66 shoppers every second, making them adopt a consumer-centric approach of business and marketing Tesco plc, C. Despite the frequent changes in the business environment and stiff competition, Tesco has managed to maintain their leading position in the retail industry.
One of the key factors making the company market leaders is their workforce. The company employs people in their company and consider them as colleagues signifying equal position for all workers rather than using the terminology of employees.
With appropriate motivation techniques and workforce diversity measures, the human resource department of Tesco has managed to create motivated and engaged workforces who are dedicated to attaining the company goals. The Tesco case study would contain a detailed discussion on the motivation techniques used by the company along with their approach to diversity and people management. Several theories and models would be evaluated in order to understand the effectiveness of the strategy used by Tesco.
Management Strategies and Practices: As per the article published in Campaignlive. The human resource management of the company is robust and provides support to all their employees irrespective of their position. However, in order to understand the motivation techniques used by the company, the meaning of the term has to be understood.
As per Nscpolteksby. The three important components of motivation are — direction, effort and persistence. The management of Tesco understands the need of having a motivated workforce due to which they use several means to maintain positive employee relations and high levels of employee engagement.
Apart from that, the management of the company has realized the need to use diversity management tools to manage their staffs as the company has workers belonging to different age group, gender, religion, background and ethnicity. One of the methods of motivation used by the supermarket giant is treating the employees with care and making them feel important.
The company believes in working in teams ensuring that every employee is included in the decision-making process and valued. Another motivation technique used by the company is the reward management system. The human resource department understands the need of using monetary and non-monetary incentives of retaining their staff in the increasing dynamicity of the labour markets Shields et al, The company has formed reward objectives that are — attract, motivate, recognize, align and remain Tesco plc, D.
Five Functions of Management (Fayol)
The individual contributions of every employee are tracked, and the best performance is rewarded, which motivates the employees to work harder and deliver their best performance. The reward packages include — annual bonus and share incentives along with recognition and appraisal.
Employing a large workforce comes with the responsibility of caring for the health and safety of the employees, which Tesco executes meticulously.
Recently, in order to protect the health of its workers, Tesco has forged a partnership with three UK based health charities — Cancer Research UK, British Heart Foundation and Diabetes UK, so that they can develop new workplace health programmes Scott, Managerial skills, Technology knowledge, and similar expertise are necessary to succeed in the workplace.
Possessing a management skill is imperative to be part of the manager profile. The management theories assist in increasing the service quality and organizational productivity. All managers do not use the single concept or theory while implementing strategies in the office. A combination of a number of concepts depending on the workforce, purpose and workplace are used by the managers. The popular management theories used at the work are chaos theory, contingency theory, and system theory.
Theory X and Y that addresses management strategies for motivating the employees is also implemented to increase the productivity of the worker. Understanding the management theories is the only way to find out which theory is suitable and beneficial in accordance to the circumstance at your workplace.
Find out whether a single theory in itself is enough to handle the situation or combination of theories would help well.
However, this could be done only if you studied and are aware of the management theories completely. Start Your Free Marketing Course. There are several management theories for the purpose of the managerial activity at the office. However the most commonly used theories to manage the work and the functioning by the managers are as follows:.NMIMS ISM SEM 1 december 2020 assignment
This theory emphasizes that the decisions made by the manager are based on the present circumstances rather than following the method one size fits all. An appropriate action is taken by the manager depending on the features significant to the present situation. A leader in the army would want to utilize an autocratic approach while the manager in the university would want to use a leadership approach that embraces participation from employees.
Managers with a good understanding of systems theory identify how an employee affects the system around them and how different systems influence a worker.
A system comprises of variants of parts that function together to achieve the objective. The theory of system is a broad viewpoint that enables managers to observe the events and patterns in the office space. Which in turn helps the managers to match up programs to perform as a combined whole for the complete mission or goal of the business rather than the isolated departments. Change is Necessary and perpetual.
Specific situations and events in the company can be effectively controlled while some cannot. With respect to the chaos theory, it is identified that change is unavoidable and is rarely controlled.The project management life cycle provides a framework for managing any type of project.
By definition, a project has a definite beginning and end. Between the beginning and end points, the project can be divided into four phases The Project Management Life Cycle. The Project Charter authorizes the project and documents the initial requirements for the project.
An important part of starting your project off right is performing a stakeholder analysis. Understanding which people or organizations will be impacted by or can influence your project is critical for ensuring your project's success.
The purpose of the Project Planning Phase is to determine the approach you will take and define all the details of how the project will be done. Strategic Planning Implementation Planning. During Strategic Planning you develop the overall approach to the project. During Implementation Planning you figure out all the details of how the project will be done. Project Execution is where most of the time, money, and people are used on a project.
This is where the action takes place. During this phase of the project management life cycle the project manager has to keep all the activities moving forward in a coordinated manner. This means you will need to track the progress of each activity and adjust your plans when the situation changes. This tracking and adjustment of project activities is also known as Monitor and Control.
During the execution phase all of the agreed project deliverables should be implemented and accepted by the customer. The customer can be an internal customer or an external customer.
Many projects skip this phase. Once the Execution Phase is complete, they simply move on. It's unfortunate since they really don't know if the project objectives have been met, don't organize the project artifacts to be easily found for future project's reference, and don't identify the key issues and lessons learned by the project that can be applied to future projects. Performing Project Closure will benefit both your company and your career. If you do this well, you will set yourself up to lead high-visibility, business-critical projects.
So make sure your projects go through the full project management life cycle. Project Management Principles. These project management principles will help you build a strong foundation from which to manage your projects. Learn how you can use these fundamentals to ensure your projects succeed. What is Project Management? What is project management? Going beyond your typical definition of project management, find out why project management is exhilarating, challenging, and inspiring.
Project Manager Duties and Responsibilities Understanding key project manager duties will help you lead your projects successfully. Using the four functions of management, learn about the main responsibilities and duties of a project manager. Learn three critical tips that will significantly increase your ability to achieve project management success.
Organizational Structure Types for Project Managers Learn how organizational structure types can affect how you manage your project. This is where you can download my " Become A Project Manager Checklist " and other project management templates. The Project Life Cycle The project management life cycle provides a framework for managing any type of project.Researches and several findings have proved that until now, earth is the only planet where existence of life is possible. Though, at present times, many more researches are still going on to look forward that whether life on other planets is possible or not.
Whatever may be the result, but the fact cannot be denied that earth is the first planet where life existed. Have we ever thought that how life originated in the earth?
What was the first living being and how did it evolved in earth surface? Therefore, to prove about the origin of life, different scientist has given their ideas through observation and experiments. Among many views, some ideas where rejected whereas some views on origin of life were accepted.
Special creation theory: according to this theory, life on the earth was created by the strong power of his almighty, god. The holy books of different religions have clearly engraved on this fact of origin of life. As per the Hindu mythology, God Brahma has created the entire universe and all the living beings present here whereas according to Bible or Christianity, life is created within six days and the first man to exist on the earth is Adam. Likewise, many more believes are there by other religions on existence of life.
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But scientifically, this theory is not accepted because there are no particular evidences that support this theory. Theory of spontaneous generation or abiogenesis: according to this theory life originated spontaneously from the non- living matter. This theory was given by Aristotle and was also supported by Von Helmont. He explained that if a dirty cloth soaked in water containing grains can generate rat in 14 to 15 days. But this theory was also completely rejected by many other scientists like Pasteur, spallanzani and F.
Theory of catastrophism: according to this theory, life was already present on the earth in different form due to the destruction by catastrophes. Theory of biogenesis: this theory tells that life was created from some preexisting form of life on the earth. This theory was supported by different scientist who gave different experiments to prove biogenesis of life. He took 3 jars with containing meat.
The first jar was completely covered with cloth, second jar was also covered with cloth but with holes in the cloth and third jar was left open. After some days, he noticed that no changes are there in the closed jar, whereas in the second jar some maggots were there outside the cloth and in the open jar, lots of maggots can be noticed.
Therefore, he proved that these maggots came from the eggs that have been laid in the jar.
He took a jar and added some yeast in it. Along with the yeast, he also added some sugar and boiled the mixture for some time. Then he left the jar undisturbed for about months. After the certain time period, when he checked for the changes, he found no bacteria growing inside the jar. It is because, no air was present there, hence so growth of bacteria was noticed.
He took a swan neck flask, and added yeast, sugar and water to it. He boiled the mixture and left it for hrs. He noticed nothing in the flask but when he broke the neck of the flask in such a way that the mixture came in contact with the air, after sometime he noticed the growth of bacteria inside it. It is because air contains some living microbes or bacteria that when came in contact with the mixture, resulted in growth of bacteria.
These were some of the experiments done by different scientist to prove that life came from living form and not from the non-living substances. Theory of biochemical origin of life: this theory was given by Oparin and Haldane.
According to this theory, origin of life in the earth is a slow and gradual process that originated 3. This theory also clearly explains that:. After these above theories and experiments, it was Miller and Urey who correctly gave an experiment to prove the origin of life.This article explains the administrative theory of the Five Functions of Management by Henri Fayol in a practical way.
After reading you will understand the basics of these powerful principles of management. At the beginning of the last century the French engineer Henri Fayol created the first principles of management theory. Henri Fayol is classified as the founding father of for example the line and staff organization. Based on his experience as a successful director or a mining company, he developed several theories that are still relevant today.
At the time, managers had no formal training. However, the increasing complexity of organizations created a need for professional management. Henri Fayol gained world-wide fame for his 14 general principles of management. He distinguished six general activities for industrial enterprises: technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting and managerial.
He defined five functions of management for the management component and these are still seen as relevant to organizations today. These five functions focus on the relationship between personnel and its management and they provide points of reference so that problems can be solved in a creative manner.
Planning is looking ahead. According to Henri Fayoldrawing up a good plan of action is the hardest of the five functions of management. This requires an active participation of the entire organization. With respect to time and implementation, planning must be linked to and coordinated on different levels. An organization can only function well if it is well-organized. This means that there must be sufficient capital, staff and raw materials so that the organization can run smoothly and that it can build a good working structure.
The organizational structure with a good division of functions and tasks is of crucial importance. When the number of functions increases, the organization will expand both horizontally and vertically.
This requires a different type of leadership. Organizing is an important function of the five functions of management. When given orders and clear working instructions, employees will know exactly what is required of them.There are many management theories floating around in the business world. Some are old and some are new.
But pretty much all of them are based — in one form or another — on one of the 11 management theories on this list. Why is that important? Yes, you should focus on making your business a success. But that success depends, in large part, on the way you lead your employees. Find one you like, do a bit more research, and then incorporate it into your business. At its creation, Systems Theory or The Systems Approach had nothing to with business management and everything to do with biology.
The premise of general systems theory is that a system is composed of interacting elements that are affected by their environment. Because of this interaction, the system as a whole can evolve develop new properties and self-regulate correct itself.
In actual fact, Systems Theory is more a perspective than a fully formed practice.
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Systems Theory encourages you to realize that your business is a system and is governed by the same laws and behaviors that affect every other biological organization. Because it is a way of looking at your business rather than a concrete management process, you can use Systems Theory in concert with the other management theories on this list. Miner and engineer Henri Fayol developed his principles of administrative management as a top-down approach to examining a business.
From this, he concluded that his managers — and indeed management in general — had six responsibilities when it came to managing employees:. With those responsibilities in mind, Fayol developed 14 principles of administration that influence how managers should lead their teams.
Max Weber took a more sociological approach when creating his bureaucratic management theory. According to Weber, the ideal business structure or bureaucratic system is based on:. Many today see Bureaucratic Management as an impersonal style that can become overwhelmed by rules and formalities. That said, it can be very useful for new businesses that are in need of standards, procedures, and structure. The results of these experiments helped him form the belief that the scientific method — not judgment or discretion — is the best determiner of efficiency in the workplace.
Scientific Management promotes standardization, specialization, assignment based on ability, and extensive training and supervision.
Only through those practices can a business achieve efficiency and productivity. In it, he outlined two drastically different styles of management theories X and Y. Theory X posits that employees are apathetic or dislike their work. Theory Y posits that employees are self-motivated, responsible, and want to take ownership of their work.
Managers who adhere to Theory Y include their employees in the decision-making process and encourage creativity at all levels. In practice, small businesses tend to operate on Theory Y while large businesses tend to operate on Theory X. In the first quarter of the 20th century, psychologist Elton Mayo was tasked with improving productivity among dissatisfied employees. Mayo attempted to improve worker satisfaction by changing environmental conditions like lighting, temperature, and break time.
All of those changes had a positive effect. Mayo then tried changing variables that he perceived would have a negative effect on satisfaction, like the length of the workday and quotas he increased both. What he observed was that regardless of the change — good or bad — worker satisfaction always increased. This led Mayo to conclude that performance was a result of the attention the researchers paid to the workers. In other words, the attention made the workers feel valuable.
Classical Management Theory is predicated on the idea that employees only have physical needs. Because employees can satisfy these physical needs with money, Classical Management Theory focuses solely on the economics of organizing workers.
As a result, Classical Management Theory advocates seven key principles:. Control of the business is held by a select few who exercise exclusive control over the decisions and direction the company takes.